Pervaporation or pervaporative separation is a processing method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous or porous membrane. The term pervaporation is a portmanteau of the two steps of the process: a permeation through the membrane by the permeate, pervaporation, then b its evaporation into the pervaporation phase, pervaporation.

The separation mechanism is based on the high water affinity of the membrane material. Water is easily and preferentially adsorbed and permeated through the dense membrane. The process can be operated with liquid feed pervaporation or with vapor feed vapor permeation and in batch or in continuous mode, depending on the feed flow as well as on production needs. Pervaporation is a state of the art technology for solvent dehydration and methanol separation from organic solvent mixtures especially for azeotreopes. Ethanol is used as solvent in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical processes as well as in the fine chemical industry. The used Ethanol needs to be dehydrated before recycling into the process. By combining distillation and vapor permeation the ethanol can be dehydrated down to water contents of 0.


Biotechnology for Biofuels volume 14 , Article number: 10 Cite this article. Metrics details. Bioethanol as a renewable energy resource plays an important role in alleviating energy crisis and environmental protection. Pervaporation has achieved increasing attention because of its potential to be a useful way to separate ethanol from the biomass fermentation process. This overview of ethanol separation via pervaporation primarily concentrates on transport mechanisms, fabrication methods, and membrane materials. The research and development of polymeric, inorganic, and mixed matrix membranes are reviewed from the perspective of membrane materials as well as modification methods. The recovery performance of the existing pervaporation membranes for ethanol solutions is compared, and the approaches to further improve the pervaporation performance are also discussed. Overall, exploring the possibility and limitation of the separation performance of PV membranes for ethanol extraction is a long-standing topic. Collectively, the quest is to break the trade-off between membrane permeability and selectivity. Based on the facilitated transport mechanism, further exploration of ethanol-selective membranes may focus on constructing a well-designed microstructure, providing active sites for facilitating the fast transport of ethanol molecules, hence achieving both high selectivity and permeability simultaneously. Finally, it is expected that more and more successful research could be realized into commercial products and this separation process will be deployed in industrial practices in the near future. Over consumption of fossil fuels leads to the deterioration of the ecological environment, such as acid rain, and global warming. Alternative renewable energy sources have been drawing more and more attention throughout the world in terms of environmental friendliness and economic viability [ 4 ]. Water, biomass, wind, and geothermal heat have the potential application as a viable substitute for traditional fossil fuels [ 5 ]. Biomass-based fuels cause widespread concern around the world because biofuels are renewable, sustainable, commonly available, environmentally benign, and biodegradable [ 6 ].

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Here the transport of components across the membrane is carried out with the help of carriers, which acts as a shuttle for selective transportation of components from the feed to the product side, pervaporation. Apart from pervaporation different mass transport mechanisms individually, appropriate integration of these mechanisms is found to pervaporation the potential to maximize the separation performance of a rational-designed pervaporation membrane.

Pervaporation PV is a separation process that consist of two phenomena: permeation and evaporation. PV Membranes are able to separate certain components that are low in concentration from its fluid mixtures. PV Membrane System dehydrates azeotropic solvent mixtures and separates pure solvents at high purity and far beyond the azeotropic point. Pervaporation Download Send download link to:. Turnkey solutions that will save you money and help the planet.

Pervaporation or pervaporative separation is a processing method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous or porous membrane. The term pervaporation is a portmanteau of the two steps of the process: a permeation through the membrane by the permeate, then b its evaporation into the vapor phase. This process is used by a number of industries for several different processes, including purification and analysis , due to its simplicity and in-line nature. The membrane acts as a selective barrier between the two phases: the liquid-phase feed and the vapor-phase permeate. It allows the desired components of the liquid feed to transfer through it by vaporization. Separation of components is based on a difference in transport rate of individual components through the membrane. Typically, the upstream side of the membrane is at ambient pressure and the downstream side is under vacuum to allow the evaporation of the selective component after permeation through the membrane.


These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Pervaporation is one of the most active areas in membrane research, and the pervaporation process has been shown to be an indispensable component for chemical separations. We attempt to provide insight into this dynamic field and to highlight some of the outstanding problems yet to be solved or clarified. Read this article for 48 hours.


When reaching a solution equilibrium, the overall rate is determined by the first two steps since molecules desorb generally with extreme rapidity. Pervaporation is firstly introduced in separating different types of water-organic solutions at azeotropic concentration. Fabrication Techniques For the fabrication of pervaporation membranes, there are many methods that can be divided into physical and chemical [ ]. Separation of liquid mixture by permeation. CTA was chosen as polymer matrix due to its high salt rejection, excellent mechanical and chemical properties, low cost and fouling tendency, and the fact that it could be processed to yield dense films. MOFs, as opposed to inorganic fillers, have a higher compatibility with the polymer matrix due to the presence of organic ligands in the structure [ ]. Overall, that is the best MFI membrane performance reported to date for the pervaporative removal of ethanol. A non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to model mass and heat transport for water pervaporation through a zeolite membrane. In such cases, a hybrid process distillation combined with pervaporation is normally the most economically viable. They found that the resultant Ti-silicalite-1 membranes had a higher ethanol separation performance than the similar silicalite-1 membranes.


In addition, most of the currently and commercially available membranes for recovering ethanol from water via PV are in the flat-sheet configuration on account of easy fabrication and convenient assembly [ 64 , 65 , 66 ]. Zimmerman C. Factors affecting alcohol—water pervaporation performance of hydrophobic zeolite—silicone rubber mixed matrix membranes. The effect of process parameters on the pervaporation of alcohols through organophilic membranes. Are there other alternative technologies? In order to design and fabricate membranes with higher performance to meet the technological and economical requirements of industrial application, fundamental understanding of the mass transport mechanism is crucial. Despite the great potential of LDH consisting of positively charged brucite-like laminates with charge compensating anions [ ], it remains challenging to fine-tune the orientation and the interlayer galleries size in the membrane [ 25 ]. Improvement of ethanol selectivity of silicalite membrane in pervaporation by silicone rubber coating. The precursors used are often alkoxide molecules or inorganic salts, and the inducers used are synthetic or biological molecules. Download references. Adymkanov SV. Concentration polarization, as an inherent phenomenon in the membrane separation process, denotes the formation of concentration gradients in the vicinity of membrane surface and bulk feed liquid due to the enrichment of rejected species water at the upstream membrane surface but also the decline of permeating species ethanol. The dispersion of nanofillers into polymeric matrices is generally carried out by three different procedures: i nanofillers are dispersed into a solvent first, and subsequently polymer is added into the suspension [ 75 , 76 ]; ii polymer is dissolved in a solvent, afterward, nanofillers are added into the polymeric solution [ 77 , 78 ]; iii nanofillers are dispersed into a solvent and polymer is dissolved in the same solvent separately, and then the filler suspension and the polymeric solution are mixed [ 73 , 79 ].

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